126 Some basic concepts about the chemistry of water - explained in very simple terms - and is intended for curious minds who wish to better understand the science behind water ionization at the molecular level. The structure of atoms and molecules. An atom consists of positively charged protons, electrically neutral neutrons and negatively charged electrons. At the centre of the atom, neutrons and protons stay together to form the atom's core or nucleus. Electrons revolve around the atom's core in three-dimensional orbits or shells. Each of these molecular orbits needs a certain number of electrons to be stable. The inner orbit closest to the core must contain 2 electrons to be stable. The second orbit must contain 8 electrons to be stable. Each subsequent orbit, for atoms that contain more than 10 protons and electrons, also requires a pre-defined number of electrons to be stable. But apart from inert gases such as helium, neon and argon, the outermost orbit of most atoms is missing one or more electrons to be stable. In order to reach a state of stability, atoms bond together to form molecules by sharing their valence electrons, or electrons that make up the outermost shell.
sharing can be achieved through covalent bonding as described below. Covalent bonding of a water molecule Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding between two non-metallic atoms, such as hydrogen and oxygen, which is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between two or more atoms. For stabilization, they share their valence electrons with other atoms. A water molecule is an example of a molecule created through covalent bonding. Water is made up of one oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms, hence the chemical symbol H2O. A hydrogen atom is made up of 1 proton at its core and 1 electron that revolves around the core in a three-dimensional orbit. An oxygen atom is made up of 8 protons and 8 neutrons at its core and 8 electrons that revolve around the core in 2 separate three-dimensional orbits. The inner orbit contains 2 electrons whereas the outer orbit contains 6 electrons. However, both the hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom are not stable when they are alone. In order to be stable, the hydrogen atom must contain 2 electrons in its shell, and the oxygen atom must contain 8 electrons in its outer shell.
112 In the 1880's, Louis Pasteur published his work on cellular aerobic respiration and glycolysis. In 1931, Otto Warburg won the Nobel Prize for his work on the metabolism of tumors and the respiration of cells, which was later summarized in his 1956 paper, On the Origin of Cancer Cells. His work on cancer expanded upon Pasteur's findings and described respiratory insufficiency and a cellular metabolism of glucose fermentation as the primary trigger for cancer progression.
Warburg's conclusions on cancer were much discussed in scientific circles, as they are academically elegant, but were not accepted by most members of the scientific community engaged in cancer research. Most cancer researchers in the late 1950's believed that the anaerobic metabolism of cancer cells and their accompanying output of lactic acid was a side effect or an adjunct effect of cancer, not a cause. Cancer research since the 1960's has focused primarily on genetic aberrations as causative for cancer, and has ignored the body of research on cancer pH and its implications for therapeutic approaches. Warburg's work was a catalyst for yet another research effort on the nature of cancer cells, beginning in the 1930's. A. Keith Brewer, PhD (physicist) performed experiments on the relationship between energized, oxygenated cell membrane and elemental uptake, vs. cellular membranes in an unenergized state such as cancer cells exhibit. He wrote a number of papers discussing the cellular mechanisms of cancer cells and the changes in metabolism induced or indicated by the lack of or presence of oxygen in combination with other elements, particularly potassium and calcium. He noted that cancer cells share one characteristic no matter what type of cancer: they have lost their pH control mechanism.