137 Animal studies in the 1990s by researcher Phyllis Mullenix, at the Harvard-affiliated Forsyth Research Institute, showed that rats exposed to fluoride in the womb were much more likely to behave in a hyperactive manner later in life. This could be due to direct damage or alteration to the development of the brain. (Mullenix's adviser told her she was "jeopardizing the financial support" of her institution by "going against what dentists and everybody have been publishing for fifty years, that [fluoride] is safe and effective," and she was fired shortly after one of her seminal papers was accepted for publication,according to Grandjean and a book by investigative journalist Christopher Bryson called The Fluoride Deception.)
Multiple studies also suggest that kids with moderate and severe fluorosis—a staining and occasional mottling of the teeth caused by fluoride—score lower on measures of cognitive skills and IQ. According to a 2010 CDC report, a total of 41 percent of American youths ages 12 to 15 had some form of fluorosis. Another study showed structural abnormalities in aborted fetuses from women in an area of China with high naturally occurring levels of fluoride.
There have also been about 40 studies showing that children born in areas home to water with elevated levels of this chemical (higher than the concentrations used in U.S. water fluoridation) have lower-than-normal IQs. Grandjean and colleagues reviewed 27 such studies that were available in 2012, concluding that all but one of them showed a significant link; children in high fluoride areas had IQs that were, on average, seven points below those of children from areas with low concentrations of the substance.
126 Some basic concepts about the chemistry of water - explained in very simple terms - and is intended for curious minds who wish to better understand the science behind water ionization at the molecular level. The structure of atoms and molecules. An atom consists of positively charged protons, electrically neutral neutrons and negatively charged electrons. At the centre of the atom, neutrons and protons stay together to form the atom's core or nucleus. Electrons revolve around the atom's core in three-dimensional orbits or shells. Each of these molecular orbits needs a certain number of electrons to be stable. The inner orbit closest to the core must contain 2 electrons to be stable. The second orbit must contain 8 electrons to be stable. Each subsequent orbit, for atoms that contain more than 10 protons and electrons, also requires a pre-defined number of electrons to be stable. But apart from inert gases such as helium, neon and argon, the outermost orbit of most atoms is missing one or more electrons to be stable. In order to reach a state of stability, atoms bond together to form molecules by sharing their valence electrons, or electrons that make up the outermost shell.
sharing can be achieved through covalent bonding as described below. Covalent bonding of a water molecule Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding between two non-metallic atoms, such as hydrogen and oxygen, which is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between two or more atoms. For stabilization, they share their valence electrons with other atoms. A water molecule is an example of a molecule created through covalent bonding. Water is made up of one oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms, hence the chemical symbol H2O. A hydrogen atom is made up of 1 proton at its core and 1 electron that revolves around the core in a three-dimensional orbit. An oxygen atom is made up of 8 protons and 8 neutrons at its core and 8 electrons that revolve around the core in 2 separate three-dimensional orbits. The inner orbit contains 2 electrons whereas the outer orbit contains 6 electrons. However, both the hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom are not stable when they are alone. In order to be stable, the hydrogen atom must contain 2 electrons in its shell, and the oxygen atom must contain 8 electrons in its outer shell.